Are you interested in Sun Dream Meaning? Then this guide is for you!
Being arguably the most revered celestial body, it is not strange to see the sun in your dreams.
The sun appears often in our thoughts. It features constantly in our conversations, though not always directly.
We talk of doing this and the other thing during the day – meaning when the sun is up. You may also hear of someone planning to do something at night – or when the sun is down.
Indeed, the influence of the sun encompasses every area of your life.
This tells you to treat dreams about the sun with the seriousness they desire. Pay close attention to other factors that come into play in this dream.
Here’s a look at some common sun dreams and their meanings.
Some Specific Sun Dream Meanings
#1 – Dream of the Sun on a Cloudless Sky
Life is beautiful. This dream reminds you to show gratitude for every good thing happening in your life.
Be happy that you are alive, and keep working for your goals and dreams. You are in a unique position to enjoy the trappings of life.
Actually, a good number of people would give a lot to reach your level. Don’t take the small and big blessings in your life for granted.
#2 -Dream of Sunbathing Under a Radiant Sun
This dream reminds you of the need to take a break from your busy schedule. It’s time to take care of your personal needs.
Use this opportunity to recoup your lost energy and get ready for the struggles ahead. This is also a good time to reconnect with your family and loved ones.
Having this dream tells you to take every opportunity to laugh, have fun, and create lasting memories.
#3 – Dream of Seeing the Sun Through Sunglasses
This is a sign that you have recently been involved in unethical activities. This dream warns you to desist from pursuing your newfound agendas.
Taking part in unruly or immoral activities will sabotage your bigger good. It will kill your dreams and compromise your goals.
Although you can’t be responsible for other people’s actions, you are fully responsible for your own.
#4 – Dream of Being Unable to Look at the Sun
If the sun is shining too brightly and you are unable to look directly at it, there’s trouble in your social circles.
Your actions and attitude are pushing your friends to the wall. It won’t be long before they start reacting to this.
This dream encourages you to have a look at the source of potential conflict in your inner circle and deal with it.
You’ll realize that you have to change how you look at many things.
#5 – Dream of the Sun Shining at Night
You feel good about the measures you are taking to make your future brighter. The positive actions you are pursuing indicate comfort and protection for you and your loved ones.
This dream also means you’ll get support in your darkest moments. An authority figure will emerge to guide you when you are at your lowest.
You’ll receive the love, support, and encouragement to take positive steps in your life.
#6 – Dream of the Dancing Under the Sun
This dream encourages you to make the best in tough conditions. It is not an easy thing to dance under the hot sun.
Keep pushing on; don’t allow your situations to rob you of your peace and happiness. Your efforts and positive attitude will turn the chaos and hardships in your life into success.
#7 – Dream of Walking Under the Hot Sun
You are slowly losing your motivation in waking life. You are frustrated by the results you keep posting despite working hard.
Clearly, something in your life is out of place. You need to act with urgency to find out what it could be and fix it.
You’re likely to discover that your priorities are upside down. You have been pursuing the wrong goals; it’s no wonder you are not happy with your work.
#8 – Dream of Sun with Dark Spots
This sign shows you have allowed negative energies from your past to rule your life. As a result, you have lost faith in your beliefs.
You feel inadequate to handle the challenges in your life.
This dream prods you to see things as they truly are. For example, you have a unique set of skills and talents that you can use to make your life better.
Dreaming of the Sun with dark spots tells you to break free of your past. This is the time to cut off all doubts and uncertainties.
#9 – Dream of a Red Sun
Are you sure you are headed in the right direction? This dream warns you against pushing on thoughtlessly with little regard for your goals.
There’s danger in taking action without consulting your intuition and inner wisdom. Failure to listen to your instincts will lead to long-protracted internal conflict.
You’ll be angry with the results you get from your actions because they don’t reflect your values and beliefs.
#10 – Dream of a Strong Sun After the Rain
You are likely to have this dream during a period of hardships and uncertainties. It tells you that things will finally settle down, and you’ll get to pursue your goals.
This dream indicates you’ll come out of the hard times largely unscathed. You’ll be wiser and more mature, ready to take on new challenges in the future.
#11 – Dream of the Sun and the Rainbow
This is a sign of remarkable improvement in your social and professional circles. You’ll find solutions to the quarrels and conflicts you’ve been experiencing with some of your colleagues.
Your relationships will be restored, and productivity will tremendously improve as a result.
This dream also indicates happy times with your partner. This is a good time to plan a vacation or just a simple outing.
#12 – Dream of Feeling Cold Under the Sun
Something negative that you have been doing is about to catch up with you. Karma never forgets; it always gives you your dues at the right time.
Perhaps you have been treating someone under your care badly. This will translate to bad luck for you even when everyone else is having a good time.
This dream asks you to treat others in the same way you’d like to be treated.
#13 – Dream of Children Playing Under the Sun
This dream asks you to concentrate on the positive things in your life and let go of the negative ones. Likely, you have been paying too much attention to thoughts of failure.
Shift your gaze to the many good things happening in your life. Dreaming of children playing in the sunshine tells you to have faith in your abilities.
Allow yourself to be guided by positive affirmations. With the right attitude, you’ll achieve the goals you set out to accomplish.
#14 – Dream of a Cloud-Covered Sun
This is a sign of unexpected changes. Whether these changes are good or bad, they come with great opportunities that you can ride on.
Dreaming of a sun covered in clouds asks you to embrace the changes coming your way. They are meant to usher you to the next level of your life.
#15 – Dream of the Sun Exploding
A relationship you held dear is about to end, and you are likely to be devastated by this. This dream calls on you to be strong in the face of such a loss.
Although an important phase of your life ended, you have a lot to live for. The future is beckoning and full of promises.
You need to have a positive mindset to see the possibilities ahead.
#16 – Dream of a Black Sun
There’s something you miss from your past. Regardless of how hard you try to focus on what lies ahead, you keep going down memory lane.
This dream warns that you’ll sink into despair or depression unless you handle this matter once and for all.
What makes you miss that part of your past? Can you recreate it in the present, and is it relevant?
Don’t waste time and energy on things you have no control over.
#17 – Dream of a Yellow Sun
Dreaming of a yellow sun encourages you to pursue your passion. You have a right to be happy; never allow anything to interfere with this right.
Concentrate on the things that bring you joy every day of your life.
This dream reminds you there’s much to live for. As such, look to the future with hope.
#18 – Dream of a Conjoined Sun and Moon
Dreaming of the sun and moon attached indicates deep-seated problems in your family.
Likely, you don’t see eye to eye with your partner, and the question of divorce is not far off your mind.
This dream prods you to take action to save your marriage or family relationships. If relationships and family are worth fighting for, use every trick in the book to stabilize them.
#19 – Dream of the Sun Peeking Through the Clouds
Your problems are slowly but surely melting away. The positive attitude you have adopted lately is bearing fruit.
You have an opportunity to make impressive strides if you maintain the tempo you have taken. Keep paying attention to the possibilities in your life as opposed to what can’t work.
Before long, your problems will be forgotten, relegated to the past.
#20 – Dream of Stars Moving Around the Sun
This signifies good luck. It indicates that the ideas you have been pushing will bear fruit. It’s a good thing that you have opened your mind and heart to diverse concepts.
The level of your success will depend on how much of the knowledge in your head you can implement.
This should inspire you to keep exploring and experimenting with different ideas.
#21 – Dream of the Sun During an Eclipse
This is a sign of bad times ahead. You may lose someone or something valuable.
The darkness that occurs in an eclipse signifies the sadness, despair, and grief that may soon engulf your life.
Sun Dreams Final Thoughts
The sun plays a fundamental role in your daily life. As such, any message conveyed by the sun should not be taken for granted.
Generally, these dreams stand for inner beauty, resilience, and positive light. Dreaming of the sun gives you hope in tough times.
It is a sign that you’ll not fail despite the many hurdles you have to contend with.
The sun is seen as the source of life in many cultures. A dream that features this celestial body teaches you to respect and uphold the sanctity of life.
Understanding Sun Symbolism
When it comes to understanding sun symbolism, there are a few basic concepts that you should be aware of.
The sun is often seen as a symbol of power, force, and source of life and energy. It is a representation of self and nature, and various cultures and religions have revered it for centuries.
Basic Concepts of Sun Symbolism
The sun is a powerful symbol that has been used in various ways throughout history. It is often associated with light and warmth, which are essential for life to thrive.
The sun is also seen as a symbol of power and energy, representing the life-giving force that sustains all living things.
In many cultures, the sun is also associated with the self. It is seen as a representation of the inner self, the soul, and the spirit.
The sun is often used as a symbol of personal growth and enlightenment, representing the journey towards self-discovery and self-realization.
Historical Context of Sun Symbolism
The sun has been revered throughout history, and its symbolism has been used in various ways by different cultures and religions.
In ancient Egypt, the sun was worshipped as the God Ra, who was seen as the creator of all life. In Hinduism, the sun is associated with the God Surya, who is seen as the source of all energy and life.
In many Native American cultures, the sun is seen as a symbol of renewal and rebirth. It is often associated with the changing of the seasons, and it is believed to have the power to heal and restore balance to the natural world.
Overall, the symbolism of the sun varies across cultures and religions, but it is often associated with power, vitality, and spirituality.
Whether it is seen as a representation of the self or the source of all life and energy, the sun is a powerful symbol that has been revered throughout history.
Sun Symbolism in Ancient Civilizations
The sun has been a significant symbol in various ancient civilizations, representing different beliefs and values.
Here are some examples of sun symbolism in ancient cultures:
Sun Symbolism in Ancient Egypt
In ancient Egypt, the sun was associated with the God Ra, who was believed to be the creator of the world and the ruler of the sky. Ra was often depicted as a falcon or a man with a falcon head, holding a sun disk on his head. The sun was also associated with other gods, such as Horus, who was believed to be the son of Ra and the God of the sky.
Sun Symbolism in Greek Mythology
In Greek mythology, the sun was personified as the god Helios, who drove a chariot across the sky every day.
Helios was often depicted as a handsome man with a radiant crown, riding a chariot pulled by fiery horses. The sun was also associated with other gods, such as Apollo, who was the God of light, music, and prophecy.
Sun Symbolism in Aztec Culture
In Aztec culture, the sun was personified as the God Inti, who was believed to be the patron of agriculture and the source of life. Inti was often depicted as a golden disk with a face surrounded by rays and flames.
The sun was also associated with other gods, such as Huitzilopochtli, who was the God of war and the sun.
Sun Symbolism in Hindu Culture
In Hindu culture, the sun was associated with the God Surya, who was believed to be the source of light and warmth. Surya was often depicted as a man with three eyes and four arms, riding a chariot pulled by seven horses.
The sun was also associated with other gods, such as Vishnu, who was the preserver of the universe.
Sun Symbolism in Japanese Culture
In Japanese culture, the sun was personified as the goddess Amaterasu, who was believed to be the source of light and the ancestor of the imperial family. Amaterasu was often depicted as a woman with a radiant crown, holding a mirror or a jewel. The sun was also associated with other gods, such as Hachiman, who was the God of war and the protector of Japan.
Overall, sun symbolism has played an important role in the art and history of many ancient civilizations. It has represented different beliefs and values, such as creation, life, energy, and power.
Sun Symbols in Art and Literature
The sun has been a popular subject for artists and writers throughout history. Its symbolism in art and literature varies across cultures, but generally, it represents power, life, and energy.
In this section, we will explore some of the most common sun symbols in visual art and literature.
Sun Symbols in Visual Art
The sun has been used as a symbol in visual art for centuries. From ancient cave paintings to contemporary art, the sun has been depicted in many forms. One of the most common sun symbols in art is the sunburst.
This symbol represents the sun’s rays and is often used to depict power and energy. In some cultures, the sunburst is also a symbol of enlightenment and spiritual awakening.
Another common sun symbol in art is the face of the sun. This symbol is often used to represent the sun as a person or a deity.
In some cultures, the sun is seen as a god or goddess, and the face of the sun is used to depict this deity. The face of the sun is also a symbol of power and energy.
Sun Symbols in Literature
The sun has also been a popular subject in literature. In literature, the sun is often used as a metaphor for life, energy, and power. One of the most famous examples of the sun as a metaphor is in the poem “The Sun Rising” by John Donne.
In this poem, the sun is personified as a person who is interrupting the speaker’s love affair.
In literature, the sun is also used to represent personal power and energy. In many cultures, the sun is seen as a symbol of strength and vitality. The sun is often used as a metaphor for the human spirit and the power of the individual.
Overall, the sun has been a powerful symbol in art and literature for centuries. Its symbolism varies across cultures, but it is generally seen as a symbol of power, life, and energy.
Whether depicted in visual art or used as a metaphor in literature, the sun continues to inspire and captivate artists and writers today.
Sun Symbols and Christianity
Christianity has a rich history of using sun symbols in its art and symbolism. Here are some examples of how the sun has been used in Christianity:
The Cross as a Sun Symbol
The cross, one of the most recognizable symbols of Christianity, is often depicted with rays of light emanating from it, symbolizing the sun.
This is especially true in depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The cross itself can be seen as a symbol of the sun, as it represents the intersection of the celestial and earthly realms.
Sun Symbolism in Christian Art
Christian art often incorporates sun symbols to represent the glory of God and the divinity of Christ.
One common motif is the “Christ in Majesty,” where Christ is depicted as a king sitting on a throne, often in a mandorla (an almond-shaped aura of light). This image is often surrounded by symbols of the sun, such as rays of light and a halo.
Another example is the chariot of the sun, which is often depicted in Christian art as a symbol of the triumph of Christ over sin and death.
In this image, Christ is often depicted as the charioteer, driving the sun across the sky.
Overall, the sun has played an important role in Christian symbolism and art, representing the power and majesty of God and the divinity of Christ.
Sun Symbols and Astrology
Astrology has long associated the Sun with power, vitality, and strength. The Sun is a planetary symbol that represents our conscious mind and our will to live.
It is also the foundation for our identity and sense of purpose. In this section, we’ll explore the significance of the Sun in astrology, including its planetary symbolism and the role it plays in Sun signs.
The Sun as a Planetary Symbol
The Sun is the ruler of the zodiac sign Leo and is often referred to as the “king” of the planets. It represents the foundational energy of the solar system and is the source of all life on Earth.
In astrology, the Sun is associated with power, vitality, and strength. It is the center of our solar system and is responsible for giving us energy, light, and warmth.
The Sun’s energy is also associated with creativity, self-expression, and leadership. It represents our ego and the part of us that censors our thoughts and actions. The Sun’s position in our natal chart can reveal a great deal about our personality and life purpose.
Sun Signs in Astrology
Sun signs are one of the most popular aspects of astrology. They are determined by the position of the Sun at the time of your birth and represent your basic personality traits and characteristics.
Each zodiac sign is associated with a different element (fire, earth, air, or water) and has its unique qualities and traits.
The Sun’s position in your natal chart can also reveal a great deal about your life purpose and direction.
For example, if your Sun is in the sign of Aries, you may be driven by a need for adventure and excitement. If your Sun is in the sign of Taurus, you may be focused on stability and security.
In conclusion, the Sun is a powerful planetary symbol that represents our conscious mind, our will to live, and our sense of purpose.
It plays a significant role in astrology and can reveal a great deal about our personality and life path. Whether you’re exploring your Sun sign or delving deeper into your natal chart, the Sun’s energy is sure to guide you on your journey.
The Sun Symbol in Different Cultures
The sun has been an important symbol in various cultures across the world. It has been interpreted differently by different cultures, but some common threads are running throughout.
In this section, we will explore the sun symbol in Japanese and ancient Egyptian cultures.
Sun Symbolism in Japanese Culture
In Japanese culture, the sun is known as the “Land of the Rising Sun” and is considered a symbol of purity, warmth, and growth.
The sun is also associated with the goddess Amaterasu, who is believed to be the ancestor of the Japanese imperial family. She is also considered the goddess of the sun and is believed to bring light and life to the world.
The Japanese flag, which features a red circle on a white background, is also a representation of the sun.
The flag is called “Nisshōki” in Japanese, which means “sun-mark flag.” The flag has been used since the late 19th century and is a symbol of the country’s identity and pride.
Sun Symbolism in Ancient Egyptian Culture
In ancient Egyptian culture, the sun was considered the center of all power and was closely connected to some of their most important gods, such as Ra and Horus. Ra was the God of the sun and was believed to have created the world.
He was also considered the king of the gods and was often depicted with a sun disk on his head.
Horus was also associated with the sun and was believed to be the God of the sky and the rising sun. He was often depicted as a falcon with a sun disk on his head.
The ancient Egyptians also built temples and monuments aligned with the sun’s movements.
For example, the Great Sphinx of Giza is believed to be aligned with the rising sun on the spring equinox.
In conclusion, the sun symbol has been interpreted differently in various cultures across the world. In Japanese culture, the sun is associated with purity, warmth, and growth, while in ancient Egyptian culture, it is linked to power and important gods.
Understanding the context and interpretations of the sun symbol in different cultures can provide us with a deeper appreciation of their beliefs and traditions.
The Sun Symbol and Emotions
When it comes to emotions, the sun symbol can have a significant impact on the way you feel.
Here are a few ways in which the sun symbolism can affect your emotions:
Sun Symbolism and Positivity
The sun is often associated with positivity, joy, and happiness. It is a symbol of hope and renewal, and it can help you feel more confident and optimistic about the future. When you see the sun, it can help you feel more energized and motivated to take on the day. Additionally, the sun can help you feel more connected to nature and the world around you, which can help you feel more grounded and centered.
Sun Symbolism and Love
The sun is also a symbol of love, particularly romantic love. It is often associated with passion, desire, and intimacy. When you see the sun, it can help you feel more open to love and connection with others.
It can also help you feel more confident and self-assured, which can make you more attractive to potential partners.
In conclusion, the sun symbol can have a significant impact on your emotions, particularly when it comes to positivity and love.
By embracing the symbolism of the sun, you can help yourself feel more energized, motivated, and connected to the world around you.
Sun Symbolism and Life Concepts
The sun has been a symbol of life and vitality in many cultures throughout history. Its powerful energy and life-giving warmth have made it a symbol of hope, optimism, and renewal. In this section, we will explore the connection between sun symbolism and life concepts.
The Sun Symbol and Rebirth
The sun is often associated with the concept of rebirth. It is a symbol of new beginnings and fresh starts. Just as the sun rises each morning, bringing light and warmth to the world, it represents the start of a new day and a new opportunity to start again.
The sun’s warmth and light are a reminder that even in the darkest of times, there is always hope for a brighter future.
The Sun Symbol and New Beginnings
The sun is also a symbol of new beginnings. It represents the start of a new cycle, whether it is the start of a new day, a new season, or a new year.
The sun’s energy and vitality are a reminder that with every new beginning comes the opportunity for growth and renewal. The sun’s warmth and light provide us with the energy we need to start fresh and pursue our goals with renewed vigor.
In conclusion, the sun is a powerful symbol of life and vitality, representing hope, optimism, and renewal.
Its connection to concepts such as rebirth and new beginnings makes it a powerful symbol for those seeking to start anew. Whether you are looking to start a new project, pursue a new career, or simply start fresh, the sun’s energy and vitality can provide you with the inspiration and motivation you need to succeed.
Sun Symbols and Their Meanings
When it comes to sun symbolism, several symbols have been used to represent the sun and its various meanings. In this section, we will explore some of the most common sun symbols and their meanings.
The Sun Disc Symbol
The sun disc symbol is one of the most recognizable symbols of the sun. It is a simple circle with a dot in the center, representing the sun’s radiant energy. This symbol has been used in various cultures throughout history, including ancient Egypt, where it was known as the “Aton” and was associated with the God of the same name.
The sun disc symbol is often interpreted as a symbol of life and vitality. It represents the cycle of life, death, and rebirth as the sun rises and sets each day. Additionally, it is seen as a symbol of power and strength, as the sun is the source of all life on Earth.
The Sun Cross Symbol
The sun cross symbol, also known as the solar cross, is a cross with equal arms that are intersected by a circle.
This symbol has been used in many cultures throughout history, including ancient Egypt, where it was known as the “ankh” and was associated with the sun god Ra.
The sun cross symbol is often interpreted as a symbol of balance and harmony. It represents the four elements of nature (earth, air, fire, and water) and their connection to the sun.
Additionally, it is seen as a symbol of spiritual enlightenment and transformation, as the sun represents the journey from darkness to light.
The Sun Spiral Symbol
The sun spiral symbol is a spiral that represents the sun’s journey through the sky. This symbol has been used in many cultures throughout history, including ancient Greece, where it was known as the “meander” and was associated with the sun god Helios.
The sun spiral symbol is often interpreted as a symbol of growth and transformation. It represents the cyclical nature of life and the journey from birth to death and rebirth.
Additionally, it is seen as a symbol of spiritual awakening and enlightenment, as the spiral represents the journey inward to find one’s true self.
In conclusion, these are just a few of the many sun symbols and their meanings.
Each symbol uniquely represents the sun, but they all share a common theme of life, vitality, and spiritual enlightenment.
Sun Symbols and Nature
When it comes to nature, the sun is one of the most powerful symbols. It represents life, energy, and growth.
In fact, many animals and plants have adapted to the sun’s presence and rely on it for survival. Here are some ways in which the sun symbolizes nature:
The Sun and Animals
Animals have always been closely associated with the sun. For example, many birds use the sun’s position in the sky to navigate during migration.
Similarly, many reptiles and insects bask in the sun to regulate their body temperature. Some animals even change their behavior depending on the sun’s position.
For instance, nocturnal animals are active at night when the sun is not present, while diurnal animals are active during the day when the sun is shining.
The Sun and Plants
Plants also rely heavily on the sun for survival. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants are able to convert sunlight into energy, which they use to grow and produce food.
The sun also plays a role in the timing of plant growth and reproduction. For example, many plants only flower during certain times of the year when the sun’s position and intensity are just right.
In addition to these specific examples, the sun is also a symbol of change in nature. It marks the passing of time and the changing of the seasons.
As the sun’s position in the sky shifts throughout the year, so too do the weather patterns, plant growth, and animal behavior.
In this way, the sun is a powerful symbol of the cyclical nature of life and the constant change that is inherent in the natural world.
The Power of the Sun Symbol
The sun has been a powerful symbol throughout history, representing a variety of concepts such as power, strength, authority, and leadership.
Let’s explore how the sun symbol has been used to convey these ideas.
The Sun Symbol and Strength
The sun is often associated with strength, both physical and mental. In many cultures, the sun is seen as a source of energy and vitality, providing the strength needed to face life’s challenges.
This association with strength is often represented by the sun’s rays, which can be depicted as powerful beams of light emanating from the sun.
The Sun Symbol and Authority
The sun has also been associated with authority and leadership. In many ancient cultures, the sun was seen as a divine ruler with the power to control the seasons and the natural world.
This association with authority is often represented by the sun’s position in the sky, rising and setting at specific times and marking the passage of time.
The sun’s association with authority is also reflected in its use as a symbol of political power. For example, the ancient Egyptians used the sun as a symbol of the pharaoh’s authority, while the Japanese imperial family used a rising sun as their emblem.
In conclusion, the sun symbol has been used to represent power, strength, authority, and leadership throughout history.
Whether it’s the physical strength provided by the sun’s rays or the authority and leadership associated with its position in the sky, the sun remains a powerful symbol to this day.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the meaning behind rising sun symbolism?
The rising sun symbolizes new beginnings, hope, and optimism. It represents the start of a new day, a fresh start, and a chance to leave the past behind.
In Japanese culture, the rising sun is a symbol of good fortune and is often associated with the national flag.
What are some ancient sun symbols and their meanings?
Ancient sun symbols often represented power, strength, and fertility.
The Egyptian sun god Ra was a symbol of creation and rebirth, while the Aztec sun stone was a symbol of the cycle of life and death.
The Celtic sun cross represented the four seasons and the four elements.
What are some popular designs for sun symbol tattoos?
Sun symbol tattoos can be designed in many ways, including tribal designs, mandalas, and simple geometric shapes.
Some people choose to incorporate other symbols, such as the moon or stars, into their sun tattoo designs.
What role does the sun play in astrology?
In astrology, the sun represents the ego, self-expression, and vitality. It is one of the most important planets in a person’s birth chart and is used to determine their zodiac sign.
The position of the sun at the time of a person’s birth can provide insight into their personality traits and life path.
What is the spiritual significance of sun rays?
Sun rays are often seen as a symbol of divine light and enlightenment. They represent the connection between the physical world and the spiritual realm and can be a reminder to seek higher understanding and wisdom.
What are some common interpretations of the sun symbol in mythology?
In mythology, the sun symbol often represents power, vitality, and creation. The Greek God Apollo was associated with the sun and was seen as a symbol of music, poetry, and prophecy.
The Incan sun god Inti was a symbol of life and fertility, while the Hindu sun god Surya represented the cycle of life and death.